English

Minori migranti detenuti al confine tra Stati Uniti e Messico

a cura di Ludovica Parrini

Nel novembre del 2016 i cittadini statunitensi furono chiamati alle urne per esprimere la loro preferenza per le elezioni presidenziali e Donald Trump diventò il 45mo Presidente eletto degli Stati Uniti d’America. Ebbe inizio così la politica di “tolleranza zero” che da lì in poi sarebbe stata applicata su ogni fronte. Nel mese di giugno del 2018 la “tolleranza zero”, in materia di immigrazione, ha avuto il suo più grave epilogo. A partire dal settembre dell’anno precedente, il presidente Trump aveva stabilito il blocco del programma federale DACA, in vigore dal 2012 per opera del suo predecessore Barack Obama. Nei primi mesi dell’anno successivo, il procuratore generale degli Stati Uniti, Jeff Session, aveva sottolineato la volontà del governo di proseguire su una linea piuttosto rigida in materia di immigrazione nel tentativo di scoraggiarla. Nel giugno 2018, una carovana di clandestini, compresi bambini non accompagnati, provenienti per lo più da Honduras, El Salvador e Guatemala, è stata dichiarata in arresto e/o trasferita in case temporanee, accusata di aver tentato l’attraversamento della frontiera in maniera irregolare. Molti dei minori sono stati di fatto allontanati e separati dalle proprie famiglie. Si era così proceduto alla detenzione dei migranti irregolari provenienti dal Sud America inclusi i minori che, di fatto, venivano separati dai propri nuclei familiari. Mentre gli adulti venivano trasferiti in carcere in attesa di processo, bambini e adolescenti venivano detenuti in appositi centri di identificazione ed espulsione (i CIE) dispersi in vari stati federali. Si contano circa 2342 bambini detenuti, dal 5 maggio al 9 giugno 2018 . La pubblicazione di immagini e audio  da parte dei media mondiali, da cui si evince che i minori fossero rinchiusi in vere e proprie gabbie, in condizioni disumane e degradanti, ha avuto un enorme impatto nella coscienza internazionale. Contrariamente a ogni aspettativa, con l’elezione del nuovo Presidente statunitense Joe Biden, l’emergenza migranti non solo sembra non essersi attenuata, ma appare radicalmente peggiorata. Biden, infatti, aveva promesso di abbracciare politiche migratorie più umane e si era impegnato a tenere unite le famiglie oltre che a bloccare la costruzione del muro. Più nello specifico Biden intendeva procedere con un processo di regolarizzazione attraverso un percorso di otto anni al termine dei quali i milioni di migranti senza documenti avrebbero potuto acquisire la cittadinanza statunitense. Il piano regolatore prevede che nel frattempo venga concesso un permesso di soggiorno di cinque anni scaduto il quale si potrà ottenere l’ambita green card, previa fedina penale pulita e pagamento regolare delle tasse. Da questo percorso sono esclusi i “dreamers”, vale a dire coloro che sono entrati negli USA da bambini con il programma DACA di Obama. Il programma Biden è riservato, però, ai soli clandestini entrati nel territorio statunitense dallo scorso primo gennaio; questo per evitare la corsa alla frontiera, che comunque si sta registrando con numeri sempre più alti, addirittura superiori a quelli registrati nell’era Trump. Il motto di Biden sembra analogo a quello usato dalla Lega in Italia “aiutiamoli a casa loro”, ma ha il solo obiettivo di comprendere le ragioni economiche, politiche e di sicurezza che spingono le persone a fuggire dalla propria patria per giungere negli USA. Seppur l’approccio sembra più umano, Biden non ha considerato, o almeno non ne ha ancora fatto menzione, le modalità di gestione del controllo dei flussi in termini di sicurezza nazionale. Su questo fronte non si è parlato di un vero e proprio disegno di legge, quanto piuttosto di elaborazione di strategie, le quali, però, non sono state ancora definite. Per questa ragione, l’impressione che si sta dando all’estero, soprattutto nei paesi dai quali questi clandestini provengono, è che gli USA non abbiano intenzione di fare rispettare le proprie leggi sull’immigrazione e che pertanto abbiano spalancato i propri confini. In secondo luogo Biden ha mantenuto il Title 42 e dunque la possibilità di espellere la maggior parte dei migranti immediatamente, ma, al contempo, ha scelto di accogliere i minori non accompagnati a prescindere dal loro status di richiedenti asilo e/o di considerazioni sui generis. Questa decisione ha creato una conseguenza indesiderata: molte famiglie spingono i loro figli a viaggiare da soli verso gli States poiché a loro è data la possibilità di restare. Ci si ritrova dunque davanti ad un effetto domino: se prima la tolleranza zero di Trump aveva separato milioni di famiglie, ora ci troviamo davanti a fiumi di migranti che volontariamente si separano pur di “salvare” i propri figli. Ciononostante i minori non accompagnati costituiscono un numero irrisorio rispetto a quello delle famiglie con figli, minori di sei anni, che si accingono all’ingresso. Questo perché si è previsto una sorta di canale preferenziale per questi minori. È opportuno ricordare che, nonostante la situazione in cui i paesi di provenienza dei migranti riversano, molti clandestini non rientrano nei criteri per la concessione dell’asilo, ma a loro è concesso comunque l’ingresso se dimostrano di provare una paura fondata. La situazione resta però ancora molto problematica. Ancora oggi i minori migranti restano detenuti nei CIE ed è sempre più complicato ricevere notizie circa le loro condizioni. Biden ha, infatti, vietato l’accesso nei CIE ai mass media, il che sembra un tentativo di occultamento di prove di una detenzione disumana. È questa la differenza principale con la precedente amministrazione: nonostante le pessime condizioni in cui i migranti erano detenuti, Trump ha bloccato l’accesso ai campi al personale non autorizzato solo dopo la divulgazione delle immagini. Non è giustificabile il comportamento assunto dallo Stato. Voler scoraggiare i migranti irregolari non avrebbe mai dovuto tradursi nei termini della separazione familiare e della detenzione minorile, fondata esclusivamente sullo status di migrante, il che, tra tutto, costituisce una discriminazione severamente vietata dagli accordi internazionali. Per il momento, gli Stati Uniti continuano a commettere violazioni internazionali ai danni dei bambini, trascurando i loro interessi e le conseguenze psico-fisiche delle condizioni in cui sono costretti a vivere. Ancora una volta, anziché scegliere di abbracciare politiche concrete, la situazione viene lasciata al caso, evidenziando come questa emergenza non sia probabilmente un punto di interesse centrale per la politica del paese.    
The detention of migrant children at the U.S-Mexico border

by Ludovica Parrini

In November 2016 the US citizens went to the polls to express their preference in the presidential election. Donald Trump became the 45th U.S’s president-elect. This was the start of the “zero tolerance” policy that since then would be applied on every presidential decision. In June 2018 the “zero tolerance” policy, in the field of immigration, had its most serious epilogue. Starting in September of the previous year, the president Trump had established a freeze on the federal DACA program, in place since 2012 by his predecessor Barack Obama. In the early months of the following year, the Us General Attorney, Jeff Session, has  stressed the government’s willingness to continue on a rather strict line on immigration in an attempt to discourage it. But, in June 2018, a caravan of illegal immigrants, including unaccompanied children, mostly from Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala, was declared under arrest and/or transferred to temporary homes, accused of attempting to cross the border irregularly. Many of the minors were effectively removed and separated from their families. Irregular migrants from South America were detained, including minors, who were effectively separated from their families. While adults were transferred to prison await trial, children and adolescents were detained in special identification and deportation centers, as CIE, scattered across several federal states. There were approximately 2342 children detained, from 5th May to 9th June 2018. The publication of images and audio by the world media, showing children being held in cages in inhuman and degrading conditions, has had a huge impact on international awareness. Contrary to all expectations, with the election of the new US president Joe Biden, the migrant emergency not only seems to have abated, on the contrary, it seems to be getting radically worse.         Biden, in fact, had promised to embrace more humane migration policies and pledged to keep families together as well as to stop the construction of the wall. More specifically, Biden intended to proceed with an eight-year regularization process, at the end of which the millions of undocumented migrants would be able to acquire US citizenship.   Under the plan, they would be granted a five-year residence permit, after which they would be able to obtain the coveted green card, subject to a clean criminal record and regular tax payments. Excluded from this path are ‘dreamers’, i.e. those who entered the US as children under Obama’s DACA program.   The Biden program is reserved, however, only for illegal immigrants who have entered US territory since 1 January; this is to avoid the border race, which in any case is being recorded in ever higher numbers, even higher than during the Trump era. Biden’s motto seems to be similar to that used by the Lega party in Italy “let’s help them at home”, but it has the sole aim of understanding the economic, political and security reasons that push people to flee their homeland to come to the USA.   Although the approach seems more humane, Biden has not considered, or at least has not yet mentioned, how the control of flows will be handled in terms of national security. On this front, there has been no talk of an actual bill, but rather of the development of strategies, which, however, have not yet been defined. For this reason, the impression that is being given abroad, especially in the countries from which these illegal immigrants come, is that the US has no intention of enforcing its immigration laws and has opened its borders wide.     Secondly, Biden retained Title 42 and thus the possibility to deport most migrants immediately, but at the same time chose to accept unaccompanied minors regardless of their status as asylum seekers and/or sui generis considerations. This decision has created an unintended consequence; many families push their children to travel alone to the States because they are given the opportunity to stay. We are faced with a domino effect: if before Trump’s zero tolerance had separated millions of families, now we are faced with rivers of migrants voluntarily separating in order to ‘save’ their children. Nevertheless, the number of unaccompanied minors is derisory compared to the number of families with children under the age of six entering the country. This is because a sort of preferential channel has been provided for these minors.   It is worth remembering that, despite the situation in which the countries from which migrants come, many illegal immigrants do not fall within the criteria for granting asylum, but they are nevertheless granted entry if they demonstrate a well-founded fear. However, the situation is still very problematic. Even today, migrant minors remain detained in the CIEs and it is increasingly difficult to receive news about their conditions. Biden has in fact banned media access to the CIEs, which appears to be an attempt to conceal evidence of inhumane detention. This is the main difference with the previous administration; despite the poor conditions in which the migrants were detained, Trump only blocked access to the camps to unauthorised personnel after the images were released.   The behaviour taken by the state is not justifiable. Wanting to deter irregular migrants should never have resulted in family separation and juvenile detention, based solely on the status of the migrant. detention of minors, based solely on migrant status, which, among other things, constitutes discrimination discrimination strictly prohibited in international agreements. For the time being, the US continues to commit international violations at the expense of children, disregarding their best interests and the psycho-physical consequences of the conditions in which they are forced to live. Once again, instead of choosing to embrace concrete policies, the situation is being left to chance, highlighting how this emergency is probably not a central point of interest for the country’s politics.   References https://www.internazionale.it/notizie/2021/03/17/joe-biden-migranti-frontiera-crisi https://www.huffingtonpost.it/entry/biden-pronto-a-ripudiare-la-politica-anti-migranti-di-trump-nel-1deg-giorno-da-presidente_it_6006e3dcc5b697df1a08f5c7
   

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Dalla rubrica “Lingue e Culture” del Numero 23/25 del periodico “Cultura e dintorni”
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Testo in italiano con traduzione a fronte in francese e in inglese
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Editorial

The Duty  to be (and to remain) ‘humans’

by Luca Carbonara

The new bimonthly periodical, ‘Cultura e Dintorni’, has just taken its first steps meeting with such approvals and an excitement that it’s not possible not to get involved and, at the same time, it represents a strong push to a greater and renewed enthusiasm.

Nowadays it’s hard and out of fashion talking about ‘Culture’ because of the tendency of incurring rethoric and commonplaces.

Though, it’s urgent and a right duty to promote culture, first of all considering the particular economic, social and political situation we’re living in these last months.

It’s reasonable talking about a decline of civilization, concerning first of all the part of the world which considers itself and, generally at the same time, is considered the most advanced in the world even if more and more subject to the heavy crisis effects.

That world itself, of which our Country is part, fifth world-power, shocked for years by a deep economic, political, social and cultural crisis (this last aspect, one of the most serious and worrying), which periodically seems to awake from torpor discovering or rediscovering itself fragile, as weak in its defences as in its antibodies, and to waver prey itself to strains, fibrillations, ancestral fears, and afraid first of approach and then of fall in the abyss. It’s the fear of a giant who feels fragile and shaken by an identity crisis.

A consideration which has to be done and which concerns every one of us, is that the Occidental world must ask itself about its own identity and its own essence nature. A world, the our own (the planet is really a not homogeneous set of deeply different worlds), which refuses up to now to be fully aware of the necessity, as well as of the ineluctability of being united, enlivened by common intents and noble ideals in order to get welfare and an improvement which belongs to everybody and aims at everyone.

Europe, still debated and disputed paradigm of our Country’s aspirations, keeps on remaining an ‘utopia’, just a declaration of intents, because of the incapacity to undertake a common policy of authentic and mutual solidarity. A Country, the our own, split and always torn by selfishness, particularisms and localisms proudless and guilty of forgetting its own History.

Latest celebrations for 150° Unity of Italy Anniversary have been an important opportunity to remind everybody of anyone who beat and sacrificed themselves for this Country’s unity, still nowadays split into opposite factions as in Guelfs and Ghibellines period. A Country ( the ‘Boot’, Italy, the most peculiar peninsula in the world, not only from a morphological point of view), which sees the North and the South opposing each other and evolving in a so different way, and needs to recognize itself in such values as freedom, equality, justice, fundamental principles of our Constitution an essential point of reference too much frequently vilified and ignored besides being unknown to most people.

All that in a context dominated by a globalized economy, prey of an endless crisis. A globalization which has not brought either a general welfare or equality but, on the contrary, has rather increased the already abnormal growth differences between the North and the South of the world in a consequential as well as unexpected, unforeseeable and dramatic explosion of the whole Arabian world, an event which still more puts doubts and questions to a divided world even though, in spite of it, united by an epochal upset.

We can’t get not involved in the Arabian world itself, so close and rich in culture and traditions ( it’s sufficient thinking of the deep influence of Ptolemaic view on Dante himself and his works) especially when whole peoples revolt and fight over their own self-determination. Just few hundred kilometers separate us from revolting and longing for justice and freedom countries, and it’s a West’s duty to give an answer which can’t be of denial.

Governments have to find the rightest answers and try to get the meaning of what is just now happening (‘historia magistra vitae’ and the history is also to be studied and understood in its becoming) but it’s our own duty to understand how much important and necessary is to take a wider vision, in conformity with an integration and exchange point of view based on peoples’ dignity and freedom starting from such countries as North Africa and Middle East rent all the time by injustices and abuses.

Thus, it must be thought or reconsidered a new development model, compatible and sustainable, which both respects and safeguards person’s moral and physical integrity and protects the environment from every kind of speculations and ravages. It’s all the time of great moment to give care and attention to the School, Education, Research more and more penalized by economic policies which are not focused on individual growth-improvement and which, tending to limit Culture funds and mortifying first of all the new generations with no more a work and prospects, propose in a no obligation point of view easy and fallacious means to meet success which require no more effort and are not correspondent with any merit.

Culture, once more, and it’s not ever enough to be said, is the only real ‘bastion’ and antibody against any kind of barbarity and attempt of moral and physical abuse, the antidote which let us just in the most difficult moments find again our course, never forgetting first of all to be (and to remain), in its highest meaning, ‘humans’.

(translation by Federica Antonelli)

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